The fern and lycophyte flora of Japan comprising 721 native taxa (including subspecies and varieties) plus 371 interspecific hybrids was reassessed using a nearly comprehensively sampled distribution map at 10 km resolution vouchered by 216,687 specimens, up-to-date cytotaxonomic information covering 74% of the taxa, and an rbcL sequence dataset covering 97.9% of the taxa. Spatial distribution of species richness and phylogenetic diversity was visualized. Apomixis was observed in 11.0% of the native taxa whose reproductive modes are known. The number of sexually reproducing polyploid taxa (n = 199) is less than sexual diploids (n = 241), and 30 of them are evidently allopolyploid, in contrast with the low number of possible autopolyploids (n = 4). Apomictic taxa were found to have smaller latitudinal ranges than sexual taxa or taxa with multiple reproductive modes. A morphological character dataset in Lucid format is provided for taxonomic identification of the native taxa.